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      虞永平:從幼兒園到小學,不是翻山越嶺(轉載)

      發布時間:2019-07-19 10:56 閱讀量:85

      入學的話題一直受到老師、家長、學者的高度關注,今天,我們就來看看南京師范大學的虞永平教授的觀點,他認為:只要幼兒園老師積極鼓勵,小學老師笑臉相迎;家長真心陪伴,就能順利地實現幼小銜接。

      幼兒園中的幼兒轉變成小學里的小學生,是兒童成長歷程中一次重要的身份轉變,這是兒童在人生的長坡上繼續前行的一個里程牌。從幼兒園到小學,不是翻山越嶺,不是跳躍大溝深壑,也不是進入天壤之別的生活,而是童年生活的一種自然延伸和過渡。

      幼兒園教育本身就有為入小學做準備的功能,小學也有創造積極氛圍、改進課程與教學,幫助學生適應小學生活的責任。因此,只要幼兒園老師積極鼓勵,小學老師笑臉相迎,家長真心陪伴,就能順利地實現幼小銜接。但是現今,幼兒銜接成了一個社會熱點問題,很多家長在焦慮,不少幼兒園老師有困惑,很多幼兒的生活被扭曲。究其原因,是一些教師、家長對幼小銜接的認識有偏差,過于強調甚至夸大了幼兒園和小學的不同和差異,對幼兒有過高的期待,過于強調了知識準備。

      科學的幼小銜接,要求幼小協同,家園、家校配合,關鍵是幼兒園、小學和家長要了解、理解并遵循幼兒身心發展規律和學習特點,共同營造有利于幼兒適應小學生活的氛圍,循序漸進,因勢利導,讓幼兒成為小學生活的向往者,成為小學學習主動的準備者,讓入小學不再成為困擾幼兒的因素,而是成為促進幼兒成長的動力。

      對幼兒園來說,與小學銜接是一項基本的工作,這項工作融在幼兒園三年的教育過程中,融在幼兒園日常工作里。幼兒的學習是以直接經驗為基礎的,在游戲和日常生活中進行的。雖然也鼓勵幼兒對文字、符號感興趣,但幼兒的學習主要是通過直接感知、實際操作和親身體驗獲取經驗。因此,幼兒園要引導幼兒感知、思考、表達和創造,這是最重要的入學準備。

      此外,幼兒的心理準備、習慣和能力的準備也非常重要。因此,入學準備不是讓幼兒去提前學習小學的內容,而是要讓幼兒充實感性經驗,提升學習能力,養成學習習慣,調整情緒情感,為小學學習打基礎。

      對于小學來說,與幼兒園的銜接是一項本職工作。小學生的身心發展水平決定了他們主要通過符號學習獲得新知,但低年級的學生,需要很多的實際操作和感性經驗的支撐。因此,幼小銜接需要小學積極參與和配合,要提前介入,以了解大班幼兒的身心發展規律和學習特點為重點,堅決落實免試入學,堅決實行零起點教育,根據新生的特點改革課程內容與教學方法,注重小學教育的生活性、游戲性和情境性,努力幫助新生愉快、順利地適應小學生活。

      對于家長來說,要在幼兒園的指導下學習和理解《3-6歲兒童學習與發展指南》的精神,要切實理解和踐行科學育兒的理念,不要做幼兒園教育“小學化”鼓動者和脅迫者;配合幼兒園和小學開展正常的銜接教育,努力做小學零起點教育的支持者和監督者。家長要在與兒童共同生活的過程中,傾聽他們的心聲,多陪伴,多鼓勵,多討論,讓孩子帶著對小學的憧憬和向往,愉快、積極地融入小學生活。

      我們衷心期望,在幼兒園、學校和家庭的協同努力下,幼小銜接的科學化水平不斷提升。愿孩子們開心,家長放心,老師們舒心!

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